Rabu, 29 Februari 2012

Digital Camera Primer: Look Before You Buy

As with any type of electronics, such as computer notebooks, printers, or a computer desktop, buying a digital camera presents you with a myriad of choices. Each digital camera manufacturer has more than a dozen offerings, ranging from the more basic "point and shoot" camera to the top of the line professional single lens reflex digital camera. So, it's important to consider a number of factors before you buy. Here's a primer to get you started.

Digital Camera Cost

Just a few years ago, inexpensive digital cameras had terrible optics and were an overall disappointment. Not anymore. Today, even a $149 camera has more features than a $799 camera had in the past. Of course, you can pay more than $10,000 for a camera, but for most casual photographers a camera under $500 will have everything you want and then some.


It wasn't that long ago that a three-mexapixel digital camera was considered state-of-the-art. Today, fairly basic consumer models are seven- or eight-megapixels, which allows you to considerably crop any photo and still get a high-quality print. For that reason, don't consider buying a camera that's less than five megapixels.

LCD Display

It may not seem like the most important part of a camera, but the size of the LCD display will make a big difference while you're shooting your photos. A two-inch LCD is great, but a three-inch is even better since you'll be able to see at a glance whether the photo you just took is fuzzy or if it's a keeper. Beyond size, make sure that the LCD display is clear in all lighting conditions - indoors, outdoors, and at night. If you can't see the photo you just took, it defeats the purpose of having a digital camera.

Shooting Modes

Many digital cameras offer a variety of shooting modes as well as manual settings. Many of the ultracompact consumer cameras, however, do not have manual overrides, and you must choose among the shooting modes provided. If you're in the market for a "point and shoot" digital camera, that's no problem. On the other hand, if you want to be able to change the aperture or shutter speed, make sure you buy a digital camera that allows you to do manual settings. Similarly, if you'll primarily use your camera in a specific environment (at sporting events, for example), make sure that the digital camera you select has that specific mode. Keep in mind that some digital cameras even have underwater capability or an "eBay" setting for taking photos of items you want to auction on eBay, so don't assume the way you'll use your camera is unique.

Storage Medium

Unfortunately, there's not an industry standard when it comes to storage cards. Make sure that you understand the type of film card your camera uses, and that you have a reader that will allow you to transfer your photos from your camera to your computer desktop or laptops. Alternately, many cameras come with software (usually on a DVD) that will allow you to plug your camera directly into your desktop or notebooks and upload your pictures.

After You Buy

Once you've purchased your digital camera, take time to practice and play with the various settings. It's often said that digital cameras are more like computer peripherals than cameras, so keep in mind that there may be a learning curve. Once you've mastered it, however, you'll be amazed at the enjoyment you'll get from your new purchase.

Selasa, 28 Februari 2012

Developments In The Barcode Tags And Scanners Industry

The emergence of technology in transportation, communication, computer and entertainment has long been observed by people. And with the development of these high technology inventions, the need for safety and security arise. Technology has also seen this need which led to the development of barcode tags and scanners.

A barcode is a representation of information. It is readable by a machine called scanner. The barcode is printed on a small piece of paper called tags. The barcodes are printed with dark ink usually with a white background. This is done to create a high and low reflectance allowing the scanner to convert the code into binary language. This way, the scanner can read the code. In the past, barcodes were stored in the spaces of paralleled lines. But technology made it possible to store these data in different shapes and patterns.

Barcodes now have become an important part of people’s lives. They have entered the business world as diverse as transportation and telecommunication. Businessmen find barcodes the most cost-effective aspect pf business and management.

Barcode and scanning system uses several symbols to make the conversion of bar codes into the computer's language making it possible for scanners to read the code. Some most common symbols are code 39 which is now used for data security. This is an efficient way of securing the data as it has the self-checking property that out of 70 million characters scanned, only one error is expected. UPC, another most common symbol is now found on non-food goods sold in the market. This is used for a more efficient and easier price look up without increasing the printing cost. 2of 5 Code was also created for warehouse inventory handling and airline ticketing. Codabar is used to process airway bills and are now very common in freight forwarding companies and custom brokers. Plessey Code is commonly used in grocery stores. This type of code is the one that are put in items and the cashier or teller scans for price look up and computation of the bill and Code 11 is very effective for telecommunication components labeling.

With the development of different symbols for barcodes comes the development of barcode readers or scanners. Barcodes transmit information and the transmission depends on how the bars and spaces in a code are arranged. The barcode scanners are responsible in scanning and reading the information converting it into the binary language then transmitting it to the computer attached to it. Using the light detector attached to the scanner, the amount of reflection is then converted into an analog pattern. Different kinds of readable machines or scanners have been developed to make the scanning more efficient and accurate. These scanners come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and prices. Checkout scanner is the most commonly used. These are found in many supermarkets. Light pen is also one of the most commonly used as it is portable and cheap. Another type is the barcode slot reader which is used to scan moving codes. This is used in airports to scan the codes attached to the luggage. Laser barcode readers use the laser technology. It deals with light in small powerful beams. These readers can be used in freight forwarding to track the progress of shipment. It is one of the most expensive scanners and many freight forwarding companies and custom brokers invest on this to ensure an effective and safe transporting of goods from one place to another.

With the latest technology in security and safety, barcodes and scanners are now part of people’s lives. Numerous benefits and advantages are seen with the use of these security and safety devices.
Nowadays, almost all stores such as grocery, department stores and merchandisers use the barcode systems. This is very helpful to track prices without having confusion especially with large purchases. It also helps in making transactions faster and more efficient.

In big offices and companies, document management is a management now being used to manage the hundreds of documents. Several tools used in the management model use sheets with barcodes in separating the documents.
Custom brokers and freight forwarding companies use barcodes to track the shipment and movement of items.
Biological science now makes use of bar coding technology to track reproduction of insects.

Airlines, stadiums, theatres, car rental companies, and other establishments that give tickets have barcodes on the tickets to verify the validity before allowing the guests to enter.

In the recent years, the decline in production of many factories and manufactories has been seen. This was due to less effective, costly and less efficient manual labor. But with the development of barcodes and scanners, this situation was gradually reversed. This is also true for some who encountered problems in their business. Investment is always a part of one’s business. Try to invest for the security and safety of your own business. It’s gearing towards a risk-free path.

Senin, 27 Februari 2012

Consumer Electronics Items


The daily use of electronic equipments are known as consumer electronics and includes TV, telephone, DVD, CD, PC, laptop etc. These equipments are manufactured throughout the world. With the advancement in electronic engineering at a continuous pace, a number of new variety electronics items flood into the market every year and the cost the existing products reduces continuously and it is one of the biggest advantage of consumer electronics industry.

Electronic waste is one of the problems associated with these electronic item and many manufacturers are now planning to deal with these waste.


All electronic devices use semiconductors and without these semiconductors none of the electronic device is complete. Semiconductor behaves like an insulator at absolute zero (-273 degree centigrade) and can be distinguished from conductor that at this temperature the outermost filled electron energy band is completely filled in a semiconductor compare to the conductor in which the band is partially filled.

At room temperature semiconductor show a very small electrical conductivity much lower than that of conductor.

Doping in semiconductor:

Most common semiconductors used for electronic devices are silicon and germanium. Although some other conductors such as iridium phosphide, gallium arsenide and mercury cadmium telluride are also used.

A pure semiconductor also known as intrinsic semiconductor, when doped with electron rich element e.g. arsenic or electron deficient element e.g. boron in very small quantity, its conductivity increases and the resultant conductor is known as extrinsic conductor. My doping arsenic (electron rich) and boron (electron deficient) in silicon, we get n-type (negative type) and p-type (positive type) semiconductor devices.

We may create a p-n junction by doping different element in different region of semiconductor and the device is known as diode. Similarly we can create p-n-p or n-p-n junctions and the device is known as triodes.

Electronic Devices

(a) Television:
It is a device by which we can receive moving pictures and sounds over a distance. The whole transmission and receiver systems require the following inputs.
1.Camera for live images or flying spot scanner for transmission of films and sound source.

2.Transmitters for transmitting both images and sounds.

3.Receiver systems for receiving these signals.

4.Display device, which is either CRT, Rear projection, LCD or plasma. To display the signal in the forms of images and sounds.

(b) Telephone:

It is the device for communicating by which two persons can send and receive sound signals over a distance. The system requires the following inputs.

1.The telephone equipment, which converts sound signals to electrical signals and electrical signals to sound signals.

2.Central exchange from where the subscribers are interconnected.

3.Wiring for connecting all the subscribers.

(c) Calculators:

It is a device used for carry out various mathematical calculations. The input required for calculator are as given below.

1.Power source (battery or solar panel).

2.Display device (LED or LCD)

3.Keypad containing all functions and numbers.

4.All electronic circuit devices.

Electronic Waste:

These are the waste electronic devices and if properly utilized may be valuable secondary raw material source for various electronic equipments and if thrown out may act as toxic due to presence of various toxic materials including lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic etc. uncontrolled burning of these materials may also cause environmental problems.

Electronic waste is sometimes illegally sent to other countries for processing. However, due to complexity and difficulties in recycling, e-waste will remain an issue for the coming days.

Minggu, 26 Februari 2012

Before there was iPod...

In 1992 Sony launched the MiniDisc (MD) as an attempt to replace audio cassette technologies. The MiniDisc was developed based on magneto-optical storage media that allowed for writing and rewriting of stored information. The fact that the data could be quickly accessed without the need to scroll through an entire tape made this technology very promising for ease of use over the cassette. The data compression format known as ATRAC (Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding) was used to allow the audio files to fit on the MiniDisc. In fact, at the SP compression ratio of 292kbps, 60 to 80 minutes of music could be stored on a single disk. Even at CD quality, 20 to 28 minutes of music could be stored on the MiniDisc.

The first MiniDisc based machine was the MZ-1 recorder. The problem with this machine was mainly that it had a cost of more than $750.00. It had an optical line input, audio line input, and microphone input jack. It had an audio output. Some of the earliest versions had an optical line output, but this feature was discontinued. Sony licensed MiniDisc tecnhology to a variety of companies such as Sharp, Panasonic, and Kenwood. It was only a matter of time before all of these companies had released their own lines of MiniDisc players and recorders. MiniDisc players were also developed by Sony for use in the home and car in 1994. All of these efforts yielded no results in North America and Europe, where people seemed content with cassettes for recording and CDs for music purchases. But in East Asia, the MiniDisc took hold and reigned as the top audio format medium through the rest of the 1990s.

In 2000, Sony launched the MiniDisc Long Play (MDLP) format. In the form of LP2, the MiniDisc player could compress audio at 132kbps for up to 80 to 160 minutes per disc. In the LP4 format, the audio could be compressed at 66kbps for up to 320 minutes of audio per disc. But a big difference existed in how the stereo channels were recorded between these two MiniDisc Long Play formats. The LP2 used the same discrete left and right audio channels as the original MiniDisc SP format, while the LP4 began the use of joint stereo encoding.

To keep up with the new MP3 players hitting the market, Sony developed its NetMD for launch in 2002. The NetMD featured a USB connector for exchanging music files with a personal computer. However, in order to use NetMD on your computer, you would have to install their SonicStage (SS) software. Many people found that SonicStage was problematic. In some cases, it froze their computer systems. In other cases it used up a lot of system resources, had file transfer errors, and put restrictions on how often files could be transferred. Though Sony quickly came up with an update called SonicStage CP (SSCP), which was more usable. Their reputation was so tarnished by the original SonicStage that many former NetMD users still won't purchase Sony products.

Other people don't use Sony products anymore because of deceptive claims Sony made about NetMD on the NetMD product boxes and on the Sony NetMD website. Sony claimed the NetMD would be able to play MP3 files. What they didn't bother to mention was that the MP3 files would not be played natively but would have to be re-encoded by SonicStage into ATRAC format during the file transfer process. This not only meant that the sound quality of the MP3 files would be tarnished, but also that file transfers to the NetMD could take several hours.

It didn't help that Sony did not provide good product information to NetMD retailers. All during this time NetMD retailers were telling their customers that files could be transferred from the NetMD to their personal computers. Many people ended up deleting their original files on their computers after transfer only to find out later that they couldn't copy their NetMD files back onto their computers.

In 2004, Sony made a variety of fixes and upgrades to their MiniDisc product line with the release of the Hi-MD. Things such as USB two-way file transfers could now be done. For the first time, recordings could be uploaded from the recorder to the computer but only files that were recorded in the Hi-MD format. But for many former MiniDisc customers it was too late, as too much damage had been done to Sony's credibility. In addition to Sony, only Onkyo even bothered to make mini-component systems and home stereos using Hi-MD. But Kenwood, Teac, and Marantz still have MDLP systems on the market, even though Hi-MD is backwards compatible with the previous MiniDisc formats. Hi-MD contains 1 gigabyte of memory and records in PCM, otherwise known as WAV.

In April 2006, Sony came out with the MZ-RH1 portable Hi-MD recorder. This recorder went the extra step, not only could Hi-MD recordings be uploaded but also recordings made prior to the introduction of Hi-MD could be uploaded. Without blatantly admitting it, Sony was giving MD users the chance to upload all their MD recordings to computer so the files could be transferred to other formats as the MD-age was now coming to a close.

A whole generation in East Asia has now grown up using the MiniDisc formats. Many people have become hardcore fans. Many people haven't found a viable alternative for making real-time copies of music for replay without requiring the clunky intervention and use of a computer. Many people now collect MiniDisc systems just as a hobby. But the MiniDisc systems live on in popular usage because many people just want to be able to grab whatever they hear to hear again later.

Sabtu, 25 Februari 2012

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Senin, 20 Februari 2012

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